How to protect the copyright of your training and assessment materials Margaret Ryan (lawyer and trade marks attorney)

Training and assessment materials are normally protected by copyright in Australia. They are a valuable resource and should be protected from unauthorised copying, which may reduce their value and the value of the business which supplies these resources.

Copyright is automatic

In Australia copyright protection is automatic. As soon is an author records their thoughts in a physical form – whether on paper or in a form of electronic storage – copyright exists, provided that the work has not been copied from somewhere else and at least a minimum amount of effort has gone into the work. There is no system of copyright registration in Australia (although you can register your copyright in some countries such as the USA and China).

Copyright notice

Whilst it is not essential, it is recommended that a copyright notice be placed on all valuable copyright works. A common version is:

© [Name of copyright owner] [year of publication] [place of publication] All rights reserved.

This notifies any user that you are claiming copyright in your work and are warning against infringement. It also has other benefits if you sued for copyright infringement.


There are also contractual methods that you can use to protect your training and assessment materials, firstly, when they are being made, and secondly, when they are being used.

1. Commissioning copyright works – It is a little known fact that, if a business commissions someone else to write its training and assessment materials, normally copyright in the materials will be owned by the author or their employer, not the commissioning party, unless the parties have agreed that the commissioning party is to own the copyright.

It is essential that a copyright assignment be included in a written agreement with the author or their employer upfront if the commissioning party wants copyright ownership. Trying to obtain a copyright assignment some time down the track can be met with various obstacles such as: the author cannot be found, or demands an unacceptably high sum for the assignment, or refuses to assign copyright all together.

2. Why would you want copyright ownership? Because it gives you the maximum freedom to use the materials as you wish, including allow others to amend and update them. It also allows you to take action against someone who is copying the materials without your authority.

3. Letting others use your materials – letting others use copyright material is called a “copyright licence” in legal terminology. A licence can be in writing, oral or even implied from the circumstances. But if your materials are valuable, you should set out in a written contract how they can and cannot be used. If you do this and someone misuses the material, you will have a legal right to claim breach of contract. If it is unclear how your materials can be used, you are in a weaker position.

If someone else is using your copyright material

1. Infringement – What if you believe that someone is infringing your copyright? The best thing to do is to speak to a copyright lawyer. I gave more information about what this involves in an article in The VET Sector on 4 October 2021. It is important that you are vigilant in watching out for unauthorised use of your training and assessment materials because this may detrimentally affect your business, especially if you are missing out on sales or licence fees.

2. Educational copying – Some copying of educational materials is permitted under the Copyright Act through an education copying scheme called the Statutory Education Licence. This Licence is administered by the Copyright Agency, which collects licence fees from educational institutions. It distributes royalties to copyright owners and is free to join – Are you a member?

3. Third party websites – Sometimes academic resources are posted by students on third party websites. Two that come to mind are and These websites operate out of the United States, which means that there is a takedown facility under the USA Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). You can fill out a form on these websites verifying that you own the copyright in material posted on their sites and that it is infringing content and the material will be removed, although the person posting has a right of reply.

For businesses that develop training and assessment materials, a key component of the value of their business is their copyright, which gives them a level of exclusivity in the use of their materials. But this needs to be protected, firstly, by securing ownership of the copyright, secondly, in taking care when licensing others to use the materials and thirdly, by taking action against those who infringe the copyright.

Margaret Ryan is a lawyer and trade marks attorney with over 30 years’ experience in intellectual property, including copyright, and consumer protection law, working with organisations to find solutions, maximise the value of their IP and protect their business. IP by Margaret® –


Message from the CEO

Message from the CEO

We need to make sure we eliminate any issues that lead to decreased student engagement and an increase in drop-out rates. We need to think about and execute support for students who want to complete a VET qualification and follow their interests or passion. Coming out of lockdown, we will need to move to a stable economy where our graduates have the knowledge or skills that employers need.

This month we are launching our “Your questions and our answers series”, a free webinar on the last Friday of the month between 12 to 1 PM. If you have questions do not hesitate to send them to us and we will try to answer as many of them as possible during the live sessions. We have more information in the “Your questions and our answers series” article. Join us for an hour of free compliance education! All attendees will receive certificates of attendance from us.

As always, if you require assistance in any way, please contact us via email at

Sukh Sandhu

Online learning – Understanding the learner experience continuum

Online learning has become one of the most used forms of learning in the VET sector. It is a flexible and convenient way for people to learn new skills, knowledge, and information.

Learning online is a process that many organisations are starting to take more seriously. They are trying to figure out how to best support learners in their learning journey by providing them with suitable tools.

This type of education takes place in various forms like e-Learning, blended learning, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), and distance learning. Learners are moving towards online learning due to its flexibility and convenience. Some learners may feel more comfortable with social interactions while others prefer to work on their own without any interaction to achieve their goals.

Different organisations work differently with learners as they move through stages. For example, some organisations give learners autonomy and encourage them to figure out what’s best for them, while others provide guidance and support for their learner journey.

There are different degrees and types of online courses that can be taken by learners. Some courses might be completely passive while others might require active participation from the learner like answering questions or providing feedback to teachers. Learners can take online courses at different levels with varying degrees of interactivity. While some organisations take care of all levels of learners, there are other organisations that offer specific services depending on a learner’s needs and preferences.

The learner experience continuum

The learner experience continuum is a way to visualise and explore the different stages of online learning and the role that organisations play in them.

The learner experience continuum refers to the different stages of online learning from no or little interactivity to comprehensive self-directed learning where learners are engaged and contributing comprehensively to their learning journey.

The different stages of online learning

The different stages of online learning include:

Stage 1: no interactivity – learners are given content through PDF files, word copies of these documents are uploaded online. This stage only includes the passive form of learning that happens by simply reading or watching an image or video that has been produced by someone else’s expertise in one particular subject matter.

Stage 2: low interactivity – Visual and audio tools are used, followed by quizzes or assessments that help them improve their knowledge of the material. The information is presented using text format rather than PDF and word copies, the learner can bookmark what they have read and where to continue next time they commence their reading, learners can watch content, try out interactive drills, watch videos, etc

Stage 3: Low social learning – where learners interact with peers in groups or one-to-one, who are also working to learn about a topic or gain understanding in a certain area. This is very similar to the traditional classroom setting.

Stage 4: High social interactivity – immersive and collaborative. – where learners can connect with people who have expertise in fields they know little about and explore topics working as a team in any real business setting. The interactivity in the learning processes can be achieved through each of the following methods:

  • 360 photos
  • 360 videos
  • Interactive virtual reality (VR)
  • Facial recognition
  • Student trainer interactivity
  • Powerpoint
  • Search engine

This stage also includes active participation in social learning networks and activities. This stage can also include the use of Artificial Intelligence, Virtual reality, gamification and other technological advancements.

Please note: There are many other stages that organisations provide for their learners. These include self-paced courses, self-directed learning, assessment-based courses, blended theory and practice courses, etc.

This continuum can be used in different ways to help learners through the specific phases and stages – knowledge transfer, informal learning and formal learning. Training organisations often help learners during these phases by providing content support to help them in the knowledge transfer phase. They also provide feedback and coaching for informal learner interactions and they have assigned mentors or experts who can provide guidance in the formal learner interaction phase.

Synchronous and asynchronous learning environments

Training organisations are getting more creative when it comes to how they help learners. They are working to find techniques, technologies and tools that can include both synchronous and asynchronous learning.

The online learning experience has evolved over the years. The tools used in the past, like e-learning websites, have been replaced by newer technologies that allow for richer experiences for learners – both synchronous and asynchronous ones.

Synchronous learning is an environment in which learners are in the same physical or virtual space at the same time. This includes learning through group discussions, lectures, webinars, etc. One of the main benefits of this type of learning is that it provides opportunities for in-person collaboration and interactions. Synchronous learning can also refer to the traditional classroom setting (face-to-face interaction with a trainer or teaching assistant) where learners are required to attend class in person. In an asynchronous learning environment – as the name suggests – students work together in pairs or groups to receive instruction from one source.

Synchronous learning environments provide opportunities for better relationships between learners and instructors. Synchronous learning is often used in vocational education and training and higher education sectors because it is good for student engagement and relationships which is important to ensure that students come back to training organisations.

Asynchronous learning refers to a different kind of online environment where students are expected to participate remotely, they access instructional learning and training materials each week at any time that best suits them and they do not log in and participate in webinars or class sessions at a specific time each week. Learners have their individualised lesson plans and they interact with other learners and training staff not at all or only for a limited period of time such as asking questions through emails or messages.

Asynchronous environments offer freedom of choice when it comes to when learners can interact with others so they can learn when they want or need to, which can help them complete their studies more quickly. This environment also helps them to learn in different ways depending on how they learn best so they don’t feel overwhelmed by having too much information at a training session or too little information that they feel bored and detached from the learning environment and processes.

The most significant distinction between asynchronous and synchronous learning is the presence of a live instruction component that occurs at a predetermined time.

The difference between synchronous and asynchronous learning environments comes down to when learners complete their tasks. If they are completed during synchronous activities, they are done simultaneously without any interruption from outside forces. If they are completed during asynchronous activities, there are interruptions from time to time which could be due to external factors or individual factors such as someone being distracted or busy with something else.

You can include both synchronous and asynchronous learning through including:

  • Flipped classrooms
  • MOOCs
  • Providing opportunities for learners to attend classes from anywhere
  • Communicate regularly with instructors
  • Providing access to platforms where people have the opportunity to make connections with other learners
  • Providing access to online discussion forums where students can read the discussions and also have the opportunity to participate in the discussion forums as well.

The Concept of Immersive Education

Immersive education is a form of online education where you create a virtual learning environment and immerse students in the content. It is also called “learning outside the box” because it helps students learn in different ways such as learning by doing, creating, experimenting and creating digital content.

The concept of immersive education is about immersing students in a world of opportunities. It’s about giving them the skills to compete in the globalised workforce. Immersive education benefits are clear – it accelerates learning, creates higher levels of engagement, and helps to reduce costs. However, immersion also presents challenges that must be addressed by educators to successfully implement this approach.

Some examples of immersion include virtual reality, gaming, and role-playing. There are also active methods that help students learn through experiences like field trips or work-integrated learning that takes place outside the classroom.

Immersive education can be used in all types of educational institutions. It’s suitable for students who are struggling with reading comprehension, mathematics, and other subjects that require a lot of work to do on their own. This educational approach helps increase engagement among students and it includes elements like quizzes, games, contests etc.

Immersive education helps students learn better because it’s engaging and fun to play along with this concept. Students are motivated to learn when they are doing something interesting which is why they prefer to immerse education over traditional learning methods.

Immersive education is a method that allows students to learn through a variety of interactive projects and simulations. This helps them develop “real-world” skills and knowledge rather than just absorbing knowledge from textbooks.

In order to provide the best learning experience, the concept of immersive education embeds learners into a virtual reality environment that is designed to imitate real-life scenarios. In this way, the learning experience becomes more realistic and engaging for learners as they engage with varying challenges that can be found in different fields of study.

There are multiple benefits associated with immersive education such as being able to promote creativity, collaboration skills, critical thinking skills, analytical skills, empathy for other people’s perspectives etc. It also helps students better understand how things work in real life so they can develop their skills and knowledge constructively.

It can be used to:

  • Teach in any discipline including
  • English as a foreign language (EFL)
  • Subjects including Geography that helps students explore their area of study in more detail.

Immersive education also focuses on content-centred learning through activities that build skills. This allows students to experience and understand concepts and topics, not just read about them.

Different immersive education platforms offer different benefits: multimedia support, peer-to-peer interaction, personalised learning experiences and engaging learner autonomy.

One study showed that immersive education actually enhances memory retention by 50%. As a result, learners can gain skills faster than they would under conventional education methods which are based on memorisation.

The features of high-quality online learning

Online learning is continuing to gain popularity with people seeking to learn new skills and train in the comfort of their homes. With the rapid advancement in technology, it has become easier for students to learn online compared to traditional classrooms.

The main features of high-quality online learning are convenience and flexibility. The courses can be self-paced by simply registering via an app or website, lessons are delivered at a user’s own pace, there are no deadlines set by teachers, and students can engage with other learners around the world for mutual support.

High-quality online learning is not just for education but also for professional development or personal enrichment. For example, language learners can study using audio-visual materials on their smartphones or on the computer while on the go.

High-quality online learning is about providing students with the best possible educational experience. High-quality online learning comes with a lot of benefits. It is a good way for students to learn at their convenience and in a more effective manner.

High-quality online learning is the delivery of content through various digital media. These include webinars, podcasting, video-conferencing, social media platforms, and e-learning platforms.

Webinars are an effective way to deliver content to groups of people without the costs associated with other modes of delivery like video conferences. Webinars can be delivered in real-time or recorded for later viewing/downloading. They are also better suited for remote classrooms where there are students that might not be able to attend face to face sessions.

Podcasts are personal experiences that bring people closer to their favourite artists and content creators. They allow for a more intimate experience than some people enjoy while some may find it dull and boring. Podcasts also often have a better audio quality than other types of audio such as videos, making them easier to consume.

Some features that come with online learning include:

  • access anywhere,
  • anytime – students can work on coursework from anywhere in the world;
  • self-paced – students have the freedom to work at their own pace;
  • more economical – It can be more affordable than traditional course options
  • flexible schedule – they can study on their own schedule and fit it around their busy personal or professional lives;
  • personalised curriculum – teachers customise courses based on the student’s needs and preferences.

What are the features of high-quality online learning?

Online learning has been touted as the best way to advance your skills at low cost and convenience. But with the rapid growth of online learning, quality has also become an important concern.

High-quality online learning is able to provide a more personalized learning experience with the help of adaptive tools and personalised support. It also helps students by providing them with content that is specific to their needs and interests, such as field-specific courses, self-paced workbooks, and anytime/anywhere access.

Here we have included a list of features of high-quality online learning

  • The use of new technologies to deliver content in a more interactive and engaging manner.
  • The use of adaptive learning based on data such as performance, personalisation, progress tracking, self-assessment tools etc.
  • Support for working professionals by adapting content to their needs – such as adapting content for beginners or those with specific knowledge sets.
  • The use of gamification to make the process more enjoyable and engaging
  • An emphasis on dynamic communication, prescriptive feedback loops, and adaptive content.
  • Options to offer immediate feedback to the learners
  • Learners interact with peers and instructors in small groups
  • Learners can choose courses that they like based on their interests and level of knowledge
  • Learners can select tutorials that are relevant to them based on their needs and making learners more engaged by providing them with relevant content that is relevant to their needs and interests.
  • Providing multiple opportunities for learners to interact with each other and share their experiences, questions, and opinions.
  • Providing learners with a personalised experience so they can learn from a broad range of individuals around the world who have different backgrounds and expertise.
  • Creating a nurturing space where learners feel safe to ask questions or seek help from experienced mentors or peers in a community setting or through social media channels such as Facebook groups or Twitter chats
  • Have a continuous learning experience that adapts to each individual.
  • Digital content, which gives you an opportunity to access the materials anytime and anywhere (online or offline) via tablets, laptops or desktops.
  • Learners can earn certificates or other achievements that can be used in their resumes or LinkedIn profiles
  • Learner autonomy, which means that you will be given the appropriate amount of freedom to learn at your own pace according to what you need.

These features are meant to provide an engaging experience for students by including multimedia, rich content, and interactive activities.

The authenticity of assessments in an online learning environment

The authenticity of assessments is a term that is often used in the education sector. It is usually used to refer to how authentic or genuine a given assessment was. Although there are no clear-cut definitions for the authenticity of assessments, the following are two possible definitions:

  1. Authenticity means that a given assessment was created by a person who has knowledge and experience with the topic at hand.
  2. The authenticity of an assessment refers to how well it matches what students know and understand about the subject.

The authenticity of assessments in an online learning environment is a hot topic for many educators and learners. Invariably, there are questions about how to ensure that the assessments students submit are their own work.

An authentic assessment is one that can be submitted by the student and has very little or no human intervention or involvement post submission.

The authenticity of assessments is an important feature of the online learning environment. It can ensure that students are not copying work from other students and cheating on assessments.

Assessment in an online learning environment includes many different parts from formative to summative. For the purpose of this article, we will focus on what are authentic assessments and how to ensure that student submissions are authentic.

The authenticity of assessments is important for many reasons. It helps educators build trust with their students and it also helps students to reflect on their work.

Authenticity is found in four key areas:

  1. Student submitted work
  2. Student engagement
  3. Feedback from other students
  4. Clarity of expectations

There are also different types of assessment tools in terms of their authenticity levels: authentic, fake, and ambiguous assessments.

  • Authentic assessments contain content that students have produced themselves;
  • Fake assessments contain content that has been created by someone other than students,
  • While ambiguous assessments still require students to produce their own content but with no clear distinction

What makes an assessment authentic?

Authentic assessments tap into multiple perspectives, such as applying theory to practice or looking at different ways of knowing that reflect the skills needed for today’s workforce. The use cases for authenticity include: preparing academic content; preparing learners for a job interview; assessing how well learners can apply theoretical concepts to real-world situations; and developing an authentic portfolio of work completed.

A few examples include:

  • The student produces the answer without any help from outside sources,
  • The student is able to use previous knowledge, skills, and experience to produce a solution,
  • The assessment tests the students’ ability to apply their prior knowledge

The ways to assess the authenticity of assessments in an online environment

  • Online assessments should follow the same standards as face-to-face tests to ensure their authenticity. Assessment tools can be used to confirm student submissions and ensure that they are submitted by themselves.
  • One way to ensure that student submissions are authentic is by having them submit an original paper that has been edited and proofread before being submitted for assessment.
  • Another good way to ensure authenticity is to make use of an online learning environment such as Moodle where it’s easy for students to submit their own work as well as track progress over time.
  • Having access to plagiarism checking software is also helpful to assess the authenticity of the assessments

The other strategies include:

  • Assessing the student in an exam format where they are completing the assessments in front of you using the formats, templates and structures you have provided

Online learning platform providers are faced with this challenge on a daily basis. When it comes to authenticity, there are two ways to achieve it.

  • The first is to ensure that students submit their own work without any assistance from the platform provider or the instructor.
  • The second is to have students submit work based on guidelines provided by instructors and their training organisational policy framework.

There are three main aspects that can be used to assess the authenticity of assessment – credibility, validity, and reliability.

  • Credibility: A student should know that their work has been assessed by other people. This can be done through comments or grading tools for each submission.
  • Validity: The outcome of the assessment should measure what it is supposed to measure. For example, if a student submits an essay on leadership skills, they should receive feedback about their essay’s content and grammar mistakes.
  • Reliability: It shows how often assessments are delivered with similar results. This can be achieved through exam marking tools like rubrics or checklists that remind the teachers on what they need to assess and how.

The simulated environment for online learning

A simulated environment is an artificial representation of a real-world environment. Training organisations are increasingly turning to simulations for training purposes. The point of simulations is to provide learners with an environment that is as close as possible to the real-world experience. They simulate reality and give them the opportunity of practising what they learn.

What is the simulated environment for online learning?

A simulated environment or sandbox is an artificial (simulated) digital environment that enables people to go through intended experiences without having to travel to another location. It can also be used as a tool for testing new ways of teaching and assessing performance in the real world.

Simulations are devices that mimic the actual world in order to test certain hypotheses, skills, or knowledge. They can also be used to teach individuals or groups how certain processes work or what they should do.

Simulated environments make it possible for students to experience what they are learning in a different setting with varying outcomes. This is beneficial for students who would otherwise not have access to these opportunities through practical exercises.

A successful virtual reality experience can sync with an online course module. The student can experience different mapping environments related to the course by means of their own digital avatar.

The virtual world provides students with context and it is also much more engaging than traditional text-based online content. This makes it easier to understand what they are reading and easier for students to keep up with the information given in a text-heavy approach.

Simulated environments offer many benefits over traditional classroom settings. They allow access to the curriculum at any time and from anywhere, there are no distractions, and you can always get feedback from the simulated community. Simulated environments offer an affordable way to provide quality education without having to invest in large infrastructure projects or expensive implementation costs.

What can be included in a simulated environment for online learning

Simulated environments allow learners to work alone or in pairs, and teachers can get feedback on how well they are doing. The software also excels at memorisation and its ability to structure learning to give learners an idea of what they need to do next. This is helpful for people who learn best by repetition and memorisation and who don’t like memorising information out of books or even listening to lectures. Simulated environments also help people who have autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, dyslexia, or other learning disabilities because it is easy for them to work through the program with little help from others

The simulated environment can be seen as a virtual computer lab, where students have access to the tools they need for their learning. The software that these labs come with can help them create content or learn from other students’ work.

There are a number of ways to simulate an online learning environment.

An acceptable simulated environment is one that is realistic enough to provide a feeling of immersion and expertise when learning online. It should also be able to accommodate the learner’s needs and create a sense of community for them.

Examples of acceptable simulated environments:

– Virtual reality simulations or Virtual Reality Training Program (VTP)
– 3D virtual worlds
– Simulation of speech sounds, speech recognition, speech synthesis, keyboard input, mouse movement
– Online games with virtual items and avatars
– Simulation-Based Training Program (SBTP)
– Movies shot in VR
– VR content used to supplement other material

There are many different ways to set up simulated environments for online learning, but most commonly they incorporate software such as Adobe Flash or Unity3D.

In order to set up the simulated environment, you should first decide what kind of learning you want it for – content creation or online lectures. Once you have decided this, it’s time to identify what your high-level goals are – how should students be able to interact with the material? Should they have access to individualized workstations, or should they be able to collaborate on projects?

Why should you read and share THE VET SECTOR newsletter?

The purpose of this newsletter is to maintain an ongoing dialogue with the industry representatives, giving them a voice and platform to raise their concerns and practices.

The importance of this newsletter is not only because it has a lot of subscribers but also because without the right information, one cannot be an active participant in the industry. If you want to be informed about the latest trends and news, then subscribe to this newsletter.

Do you know that your trainers and assessors can use this newsletter for their VET currency?

Yes, you read it right. The VET Sector newsletter is a great way for trainers and assessors to maintain their industry currency and VET currency as well. The newsletter can be used as a training tool to create, generate, and share new ideas. It’s a great way to share knowledge, engage with others, provide valuable content that is relevant to the industry, and upsell new skill sets ahead of time.

We include a number of articles in this newsletter that are focused on staying current with what’s happening in the industry. These articles give them a quick overview of what’s new in the world of training, such as recent developments in technology, emerging practices, and emerging skills. These articles also cover specific topics related to training and assessment, including assessments and performance reviews, current regulatory practices, ideas for training sessions focused on motivational strategies, tips for designing effective learning programs using video tools, and how to create an effective learning program using games and so on.

Not only because this newsletter has one of the biggest subscribers in Australia but it is also important to ensure that you have access to the right information, you use this information for your industry currency, you share the information that is written by Industry experts with your team members.

So please share and subscribe to this newsletter online or send an email to and we will include you on our subscription list.

ASQA publishes scoping study on VET in schools

The scoping study on vocational education and training delivered to secondary school students was issued by the national regulating agency in order to protect the quality of VET delivery.

It is ASQA’s role as national regulator for VET to work in partnership with training providers to guarantee compliance with the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015.

In response to the findings of the study, ASQA has stated that they have committed to the following activities to assist the continuous improvement of vocational education and training (VET) in the schools:

  1. provide clearer guidance to assist compliance
  2. work with other VET regulators to identify risks
  3. engage more directly with education departments and schools
  4. engage with states and territories on shared risk, promotion of continuous improvement
  5. apply clause 1.6 of the Standards for RTOs (The RTO implements a range of strategies for industry engagement and systematically uses the outcome of that industry engagement to ensure the industry relevance of:
    • its training and assessment strategies, practices and resources; and
    • the current industry skills of its trainers and assessors.)

It is also recommended that the Australian, state, and territory governments evaluate how the observations made in this scoping study might assist in enhancing the effectiveness and continuous improvement of VETDSSS when drafting the new National Skills Agreement.

You can read more information at

Compliance and regulatory requirements to use video evidence

Video evidence can be used to support learning in a variety of contexts. It is becoming an essential tool for trainers/assessors and RTO administrators in order to achieve compliance with regulatory requirements.

The use of video evidence has been growing by leaps and bounds over the last few years. It is now being used in classrooms, practical assessments, institutional assessment, licensing, accreditation, assessment centres, distance education settings and more.

The three main benefits of using video are that it is able to capture all learning opportunities, provide evidence in a specific situation, and be time-efficient.

When assessing student achievement, video evidence is one of the types of proof that can be relied upon without question. RTOs can also benefit from video evidence in a number of other ways, including the following:

  1. One of the best ways to demonstrate competency: Video evidence is often used when the trainers/assessors need reliable evidence that students have achieved the skills they need to successfully complete a unit of competency. This allows trainers/assessors to focus on training rather than documenting what students have already learned through written assessments or formative tests.
  2. Demonstrates authenticity: It demonstrates that the student is in fact the student who is completing the assessment;
  3. Make the assessment process easier and effective: Videos may be simply uploaded into the LMS so that the examiner can see them at any time and from any location.
  4. Improve learner’s engagement: It can be used to improve learner’s engagement with the curriculum through creating content that fits their needs and interests. This is one of the best ways to provide evidence that the learner is engaged with the learning processes.
  5. A good teaching tool: It also enables students to see how they learn best and what areas need more practice. When learners watch their performance on videos repeatedly, they begin to understand what they are doing correctly and where they need to improve their skills. Trainers and assessors can provide a more appropriate resource for students with diverse learning styles through videos. Videos provide a way for trainers and assessors to show their learners what they did during class time and how they can improve on their learning. Learners also get to watch how other people successfully complete the course material or demonstrate their competency in a task or unit of competency.

Video can be challenging, but many online learning platforms offer tools like annotation to help learners produce high-quality content for their formative and summative assessments.

Are you aware of the compliance and regulatory requirements to use the Video Evidence?

The use of videos as evidence for compliance and regulatory requirements is rising with the increase in the adoption of online learning. In order to use videos as evidence, training organisations have to have a process in place and make sure that they comply with regulatory requirements.

There are a number of legal, regulatory and ethical requirements that you must know, including but not limited to the following:

  1. Privacy and confidentiality requirements – Privacy and confidentiality requirements are important when having video evidence from learners in the classroom or outside the classroom. Who else is part of the video, do learners and training organisations have permission to have these people in video in writing? Where is this video filmed? Is it breaching any privacy and confidentiality clauses?
  2. Permission to use the video material – You must seek permission from your learners before you use their photos or videos or anything related to them (including their personal details) on any of your marketing materials, materials that can be accessed by you or your trainers and assessors or any third party. One of the best ways to achieve this is through a question on your enrolment form, where if they have any objections, they can tick or untick a checkbox and you can have further discussions with them related to this matter.
  3. Data protection: In order to keep our learners safe, we should understand the importance of data protection and the compliance requirements that apply to video evidence from learners. Data protection requirements provide guidelines on how, where, why the learners’ personal data is stored, used and for how long?
  4. Unlawful surveillance: This includes not violating wiretap law, not infringing on any individual’s privacy rights, not being involved in any illegal activity while using video evidence and so on.
  5. Preventing misuse of the assessment materials: The training organisation must ensure that the purposes of using the assessment evidence are clearly mentioned and this evidence is not used for any other purposes.
  6. Ensuring the video has not been edited: One challenge with the use of video in training and education is accuracy in assessing learner performance. While this may be difficult because videos can be edited, many still think that videos are not reliable enough to assess learner progress accurately.
  7. Compliance with internal policies and procedures framework: It is important for training organisations to adopt a comprehensive approach to managing their video evidence, including policies, processes, governance models, and technology solutions that support compliance.
  8. Copyright and intellectual property rights: Who has these rights? What are the rights of learners for their assessment evidence? What are the rights of the training organisations for this assessment evidence?

So, what systems, processes, practices do you have in place to ensure you comply with all these requirements? If you need assistance setting up compliant evidence-gathering procedures and practices, please do not hesitate to contact CAQA today.


Attract people, places and things perfect for your growth

People, places and things are all aspects of life that can help or harm your growth. It is, therefore, important to understand why and how you should attract people, places and things perfect for your personal and professional growth. If you don’t, you will not be able to make the right connections. You can make your decision on whether to keep what you have or start over by asking the question: “How do I grow?

People, places and things are essential for personal and professional growth. In order to attract the right people for your business, you need to be aware of the different types of people that exist in the world.

Attracting people: People are not just created by their environment; they also need to be able to see the value in you. Some examples of methods to attract people could be: “building an online reputation”, “getting endorsements” and “winning awards”. These methods can be used as a stepping stone to improving your personal or professional life as well as attracting the right people.

Why should you attract people?

– It helps build relationships with new friends or business partners who could be valuable resources for your needs.
– Attracting them also gives your company credibility through big names in the industry.
– Attracting the right talent or clients for your business is essential to its success.

Attracting places: Attracting a perfect place for your personal growth is not as easy as it sounds. But there are some factors that you should consider when trying to figure out where best to go on vacation or relocate your business. Some examples of methods to attract places could be: “visiting somewhere you’ve never been before”, “making a purchase in a store” and “attending an event”. These could also help you grow because they might give you ideas or even introduce you to new friends and opportunities.

Attracting things: It is important to know the difference between the things you want and the things you need in order to grow. The difference is that things you need are essential for your growth while the things you want may not be vital for it. First, by attracting something perfect for our growth, we can focus on what we’re good at – doing what we love. Second, it provides us with more motivation and confidence in pursuing our goals because they’re already met halfway through! Finally, by attracting what’s needed for our growth instead of what’s wanted, there will be less stress to find something that meets both needs and wants. If you want to attract things perfect for your personal and professional growth, it’s important to be aware of what is in your comfort zone and then do something different that will challenge it. You might be reluctant but you will learn something new in the process that will allow you to be more successful in the long run.

People, places and things come in a variety of shapes and sizes. They can be big, little, hard to get to, or hard to find. The three are not mutually exclusive – the best thing you can do is to attract people, places and things that are right for you.

You should focus on attracting people who have a similar mindset to you, share your values and have a similar goal as you do. A good way to do this is by connecting with them online through social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram or LinkedIn.

Once you find the right place for your business, make sure that it fits your needs as well as those of your target audience.

Attracting the right people, places and things can be challenging. It is important to find what you are looking for and know the right way to attract these people, places and things.

Why should you attract people best suited for your personal growth?

– To grow your network – Connect with new people that can help you or act as a resource in the future.
– To grow your social capital – Attracting more people will give you more credibility with them, which can help when potential clients come knocking on your door.
– To learn new skills – By attracting other experts in their field who share your interests, you will have access to their knowledge without having to work hard for it.
– To find mentors – Attracting experts who are looking out for others like yourself

What you can do to attract the right audience

Understand your core values

The first thing you need to do is start with your core values. What are the things that are important to you? What does success mean for you? What are your ambitions? Then, think about how these core values align with what you want out of life. For example, someone who has a strong value in financial health would attract people who support their financial health by joining them on their journey toward financial independence or enrolling in their coaching program.

Once you have an idea of what things function best for your core values, think about which avenues would be most beneficial to attract the right people.

Build up your reputation

You can also build up your reputation by providing value in everything you do. You can create an online presence that gets people interested in what you do – your blog or website, social profiles or even career development plans like an e-book or webinars.

Think about the bigger picture

You may have a lot of choices when it comes to attracting people, places and things perfect for your personal and professional growth. It is important to think about the bigger picture in order to make sure you are making the right choice.

Get endorsements

It is important for businesses to make use of endorsements and testimonials as they can help them grow. When you want to attract new customers, the best option is to make use of endorsements.

By posting a message of their endorsement on social media and reaching out to influencers, brands can attract new customers and profit from their efforts. The more endorsements the brand gets, the more effective its marketing strategy becomes.

Some of the most effective ways of attracting people or things are through promotions and advertising on social media channels such as Facebook and Instagram.

Winning awards

The three components of growth are new customers, increased sales and increased market share. Winning awards will help to attract new customers, increase sales and increase market share.

The benefits of winning awards would be increased revenue which will help to grow the company in the long run. This is especially important when you want to attract people and places that are perfect for your growth such as a culture-rich location or people with the right skill sets.

Think about the different ways that people can get in touch with you

– cross-platform publishing tools: Buffer, Hootsuite, SocialFlow, Sprout Social, WordPress blog posts
– email marketing: MailChimp, MadMimi
– social media marketing: Buffer, Hootsuite, Twitter ads

Each of these methods can be used as a stepping stone to improving your personal or professional life as well as attracting the right people.

Become stronger than your fears

You must have heard the saying that ‘fear is the mind-killer’. Just like how fear can stop you from making decisions, it can also stop you from achieving your dreams.

Fear can paralyse us when we are in tough situations. But when we are able to overcome our fears, it can give us huge benefits. It is important to know how to become stronger than your fears and use that power for positive change in your life.

Many people struggle with fear because they become paralysed by the thought that they cannot do something. There are many reasons for this struggle, but if you want to build up character, you need to overcome this struggle and create a plan of action for how you will move forward despite your fear.

Fear can be paralysing but there are ways in which you can become stronger than your fear. One way is by having a “fear-plan” where you write down all the things that scare you, list the pros and cons of the things

Fears and anxiety will always be there. But we should try to overcome them and cope with them. To overcome your fear, you must understand its root cause and tackle it head-on.

Anxiety is a feeling of restless fear, worry, or concern about something with an uncertain outcome. Anxiety can be healthy as it helps us prepare for potential hazards and avoid harmful situations. However, anxiety can become unhealthy when it turns into a chronic condition that interferes with daily life.

The key is to learn how to manage anxiety so that it doesn’t interfere with everyday life. It’s best to practice mindfulness strategies like deep breathing or meditation on a regular basis in order to calm the mind and body down during moments of stress or high levels of emotion – which often come from our fears of failure,

Sometimes fear is a natural result of a traumatic event in our past. It’s the same with the dangers of having a phobia. However, when fear is your default mode, you make yourself weaker and less resilient. Therefore, it is important to find ways to become stronger than your fears.

We all suffer from phobias for different reasons. Some celebrities like Ellen DeGeneres or Gwyneth Paltrow have openly admitted that they are afraid of public speaking. And one study found that most people suffer from performance anxiety, for example, when they have to give a presentation in front of an audience.

If you are looking for ways to achieve your dreams, then there are many things that you need to do first. One of these things is overcoming your fears and not letting fear rule your life.

But what happens when fear keeps you stuck?

What do you do if you’re terrified of public speaking- even though it’s your job? Or if you’re terrified of asking for a raise because you don’t want to seem pushy? Or what if you’re terrified of leaving your current relationship because it means that you’ll have to start over again and risk the chance of getting hurt?

The answer is that people often feel stuck and end up doing nothing about their fear. This can be extremely problematic because fear can also create self-limiting beliefs, causing issues with productivity, feelings of inadequacy, making it difficult to take risks and causing people to withdraw from social situations.

To overcome your fear, there are a few things that you should do first:

– Understand what your fears are: It can be hard to identify what your fears are, but there are some general ones that have been shown to hold most people back in life such as fear of failure, fear of rejection, fear of judgment, and lack of confidence
– Break down the root cause: A lot of times when we experience these fears we don’t recognise them as they appear in our lives. So break down the root cause and figure out what’s behind these emotions
– Challenge yourself first and then take small steps into it: What’s the first thing that comes to mind when someone says ‘dare’? Most people will say something like ‘I dare not’ or ‘I’m not ready yet. But what would happen if we try challenging our fears?
– How did you come out of it in the past: There are many things that can make you stronger than your fear. One of the best ways is to start by telling yourself a story about how you might have overcome your fear in the past.

The other strategies include:

– Change your perspective and challenging the thoughts involved in the fear
– Do something that makes you feel good
– Find support from friends and family
– focus on what you control
– be confident, don’t let others take advantage of you
– use positivity
– refocusing on what you actually want

How to become stronger than your fears?

With all the strategies mentioned above, you can also use these few other tactics as well:

  1. Accept that you’re afraid, but know that it’s okay to feel uncertain. If you’re not sure about something now, then take the risk and see what happens.
  2. Figure out how you think about fear so you can challenge your preconceived notions about it by asking yourself questions like “What if I was wrong? What if I win? What if this worked really well for me?”
  3. Take control over your thoughts by meditating or journaling as often as possible.
  4. Become aware of what triggers your fear in the first place
  5. Examine why our fear is irrational
  6. Identify ways in which you can control this fear

Maintaining a healthy work-life balance

We are living in a world where work is no longer confined to the office. In the age of digitalisation, that is why work-life balance has been a hot topic. Whether you are working from home, the airport or the coffee shop, it is important to make sure that you are keeping your work-life balance in check. The most important thing in life is to be happy, and in order to be happy, you need to keep a balance between the work you do and the time you spend on other things. It might be hard in some cases to figure out what you should prioritize more when it comes to your work-life balance, but this article will help by giving you some tips on how to do it.

People who have a better work-life balance will be more productive and have more energy to put into their work when they are in it.

Work-life balance is an important part of any job. It’s important to know your limits and find a schedule that works for you.

There are many advantages to working from home, such as not having to commute or worry about getting stuck in traffic. However, it can be difficult to maintain a healthy work-life balance because we’re not forced by anyone else to take breaks or do something we don’t want to do.

We live in a society where the rate of work is at its height. Maintaining a healthy balance between your job and life is crucial for a successful career as well as a healthy life. However, it is not an easy task for many people when they have less free time than ever before.

To lead a happy life, we need balance in our lives between work and leisure time with family and friends, love interests or hobbies.

Every individual has a different definition of work-life balance and it is important to understand what needs to be done to achieve it. Work-life balance is the balance between work and life. It can be an advantage for some people, while others may prefer to have a career with more job security.

Work-life balance is an issue that can affect anyone. It’s not about working less or more, but finding the right balance between two worlds: work and personal life. The strategies for achieving it are diverse, but there are some points that should be avoided in order to have a better work-life balance.

People who have a good work-life balance are the ones who invest in themselves and their family, know how much time they can dedicate to both jobs & home every day, take breaks from time to time, have a clear understanding of what they want from life and how much success they want from their careers.

Work-life balance is a very important part of someone’s life. It helps to maintain a perfect harmony between professional life and personal life. Work-life balance is when there is an equilibrium between the time dedicated to working and the time dedicated to one’s personal life.

Work-life balance can positively influence job satisfaction, happiness, health, productivity, individual well-being, and even organizational effectiveness.


In this section, we want to explore the advantages and strategies of balancing work and life. We will also talk about things to avoid and things to do in order to be happy and satisfied with both jobs and home.

Work-life balance can be achieved in many ways.

  • You can try going for a walk before you go to work or eating breakfast before going into the office. This will not only give you energy, but it will also give you more time during the day.
  • Take breaks to recharge your energy and keep your stress levels down
  • Take advantage of the time you spend working by having a balanced life outside of work too
  • Find time for self-care
  • Get support from friends, family, or people in your workplace
  • Pare down your workload
  • Make use of the vacation time that you have built up over the year
  • Take care of yourself by engaging in physical activity outside work hours
  • Be realistic about your work and life expectations: It is important to know what you can realistically achieve in your career, both professionally and personally.
  • Prioritise work-life balance: Knowing exactly what is most important to you will help you determine how much time you should dedicate to each area of your life, as well as how much time you should put towards achieving a balance between these two areas
  • Protect your personal time: Work-life balance is achieved when we protect our personal time and put boundaries around it
  • Make intentional choices: Having a plan in place will allow us to make better decisions around our priorities and focus on achieving our goals
  • Balancing personal and professional life
  • Taking a break from work to recharge
  • Working flexible hours to reduce stress
  • Set priorities on what you value most.
  • Use technology to cut down distractions and avoid interruptions.
  • Unplug from devices at the end of the day and turn off notifications during weekends and vacations.
  • Spend time with people you care about outside of work hours, whether it is through your social media network or in-person through a social gathering or a date night that doesn’t revolve around business conversations or networking events.
  • Find time to think big picture about your career and how it’s impacting your personal life, such as taking an inventory of how much time you spend each day on professional tasks versus

It is important for employers and employees alike to know about these strategies and implement them into their lives because they will lead to greater success in the long run.

Strategies to maintain VET and Industry currency as a trainer and assessor

The VET industry is changing rapidly, therefore, trainers and assessors need to continuously update their skills, knowledge and competencies to work effectively in the training and education industry.

Industry currency refers to trainers and assessors who keep current knowledge, skills, and experience of current workplace industrial practises in the industry sector in which they teach. This is crucial to ensuring that all training is current with industry standards and that students get the most up-to-date technical skills and information applicable to their area. It is a dynamic method of ensuring that the quality of training courses offered to students continues to improve.

The quality of the training and assessment is dependent on the skills and knowledge of the trainers and assessors. The Standards specify that trainers and assessors must be skilled VET practitioners with current industry skills and knowledge. This will ensure that students receive the training required and are properly assessed before being issued with a qualification or statement of attainment.

Let’s start with the vocational competency requirements for trainers and assessors.

The definition of vocational competency

Vocational competency in a particular industry consists of broad industry knowledge and experience, usually combined with a relevant industry qualification. A person who has vocational competency will be familiar with the content of the vocation and will have relevant current experience in the industry. Vocational competencies must be considered on an industry-by-industry basis and with reference to the guidance provided in the assessment guidelines of the relevant training package. (Reference: NCVER)

A clear and verified relationship between the trainer’s and assessor’s formal and informal training and experience and the qualifications/units they deliver and assess must be established. Training Packages include specific industry advice related to the vocational competencies of assessors. This may include advice on relevant industry qualifications and experience required for assessing against the Training Package. The Training Package will also provide specific industry advice outlining what it sees as acceptable forms of evidence to demonstrate the maintenance of currency of vocational competency.

ASQA Guidelines on “vocational competence”:

To provide training that reflects current industry practice and valid assessment, your RTO’s trainers and assessors must maintain the currency of their skills and knowledge in both:

  • their industry area and,
  • vocational education and training.

It is also acceptable for an appropriately qualified trainer and assessor to work with an industry expert to conduct assessments together.

The three C’s of Vocational competency related to demonstrating skills and knowledge in an “industry area”

Vocational competence and currency = Broad industry knowledge + experience + relevant industry qualification in terms of:

  1. Content: How have you determined that you know how to do the job of the qualifications you deliver and assess?
  2. Context: Does this information clearly show the relationship between what you are delivering and what you have experience in?
  3. Currency: How up-to-date are you with current work practices in your industry and how do you find out if something is changing or has changed?

Skills and knowledge in an “industry area”

In many situations, trainers and assessors will hold the qualification and/or units of competency that they deliver or assess. Where this is not the case, equivalence needs to be established.

  • Formal vocational education and training qualification/units of competency you deliver and assess
  • Participate in documented mapping activities to demonstrate you have at least the required level of knowledge and skills.

The definition of industry currency

Industry currency and professional knowledge refer to the competence of an individual to perform their job role. The knowledge required in an occupation does not remain static, so employees need to continuously update their skills. As vocational education and training (VET) practitioners train the individuals entering these occupations, it is important for them to ensure that their industry knowledge and skills are current.

A clear and verified relationship between the trainer’s and assessor’s current industry skills and knowledge and the qualifications/units they deliver and assess must be established. This is to ensure the trainer and assessor has “current” knowledge and skills in terms of emerging technological innovations, regulatory and legislative changes and shifts in client demands. The industry usually does not use the term “industry currency”. For them it is either “professional competence” to encompass the concepts of currency, updating and upskilling or “industry relevance”, defining it as a solid grounding in the industry gained from being trained and employed in the industry.

ASQA Guidelines on industry currency:

To provide training that reflects current industry practice and valid assessment, your RTO’s trainers and assessors must maintain the currency of their skills and knowledge in both:

  • their industry area and,
  • vocational education and training.

It is also acceptable for an appropriately qualified trainer and assessor to work with an industry expert to conduct assessments together.

How to stay up-to-date in terms of “industry currency”

In many situations, trainers and assessors may be working in the industry sector and this can be used as evidence for industry currency. Where this is not the case, currency needs to be established through different mediums such as:

  • Attending trade events, workshops, conferences, technical seminars and other industrial events
  • Reading industry magazines and journals (subscription and notes taken)
  • Undertaking online research (and have documented logs of these activities)
  • Engaging in industry networks
  • Participating in LinkedIn groups
  • Product manufacturer/vendor training

Factors that influence industry currency

  • Technology innovation
  • Changing legislation and regulatory requirements
  • Changes to industry practice
  • New and emerging skills and specialisations as work practices change
  • Technical skills being outdated through periods of non-use

What is “industry current or currency period”

Each RTO has to consider the relevant factors, ideally in consultation with industry, to determine an appropriate currency period. A lot will depend on how static the industry is or how fast it is developing and changing. In general, anything that is 2 years old, or more will not be considered current.

The definition of vocational education and training currency

VET currency refers to the competence of an individual to work in the vocational education and training sector.

Current VET trainers/assessors must:

Develop knowledge and practice of vocational training and assessment, including competency-based training and assessment competencies through continual professional development.
Undertake professional development that contributes to the demonstration of vocational training and learning requirements

How to stay up-to-date in terms of VET currency

  • Subscribing to VET and RTO newsletters and magazines. Make sure you keep a PD log of what you read, where you read it, what you learned and how you implemented the learning.
  • Participation in VET forums and discussions such as LinkedIn.
  • Participation in VET seminars, conferences and workshops (particularly the ones delivered by the regulatory bodies)
  • Enrolling in PD courses and workshops for RTO staff
  • Participation in resource writing and validation

Licensing requirements for trainers and assessors

If licensing requirements vary from the training package requirements, RTOs must ensure that all aspects of the training package are met. License requirements should be considered in addition to the requirements for the training package. For example, a white card is a mandatory work card required in Australia to be able to train and assess students working on a construction site.

Maintenance of industry and VET currency are critical components of one’s professional identity because it enables trainers and assessors to modify training as needed to provide more relevant learning and assessment activities for students and to use real-world examples that are tailored to the needs and requirements of a particular industry. This not only increases the quality of training for students but also contributes to the development of industry ties and confidence in VET courses.

CAQA Online forums, CAQA Info for maintaining your compliance and regulatory knowledge

CAQA Online forums provide information for RTO professionals. The purpose of the forums is to support compliance and regulatory knowledge with the help of other professionals in the field.

Some of the benefits of subscribing to our online forums are that it provides access to knowledge sharing and networking opportunities among peers in the vocational education and training industry. You can also get information on what’s new in the industry through the online community.

The following is an example of how discussions in CAQA online forums can help:

When you are looking for answers to questions on topics like compliance, regulation, red tape etc., you can search for them on online forums or look at similar threads on different platforms. The best part is that all these discussions are available to a number of VET experts so you will get answers from real people rather than bots or system-generated answers!

The other benefits include:

-Receive timely notifications when important information is posted.
-Get access to exclusive content and offers from the sponsors and members of the forum.
-Post comments and create discussions with other members in order to build your knowledge base and stay current with current trends in the industry.

So, again, why not subscribe? Online forums provide an opportunity for you to stay up-to-date with the latest compliance and regulatory news. It also ensures that you make use of your knowledge by discussing different topics with other professionals in real-time.

To access CAQA Online Forums, please visit

Edu Learning – Your door to professional development opportunities

We would love to have you join our professional development retainer agreement services or individual professional development opportunities through Edu Learning. Our organisation works with the aim to help you grow your skills in a fun and interactive way. The benefits of joining our organisation are numerous, from getting tips from VET experts and industry leaders to building a network of peers, who can help you move forward in your career.

Intellectually stimulating and engaging content is what we excel at. We offer training programs that will provide your staff with the practical skills and strategies that they need to be successful in their careers in this competitive market – whether it’s in marketing, finance or RTO operations.

The benefits of being part of our professional development group include:

– Developing a better understanding of the role of a VET professional
– Getting in-depth training in different RTO sector skill sets that meet your and your organisation’s needs and requirements.

In partnership with Edu Learning and CAQA Skills, CAQA provides a variety of professional and personal development opportunities. We may also tailor the training to meet your specific requirements and skill level as well. For additional details, please contact us right away at

Live webinar with CAQA – Your questions and answer series – Trainers and assessors competency and compliance requirements

The CAQA Live webinar series will be a great opportunity to learn from the experts who have been in this field for a long time.

What makes this event so special is that the CAQA team has personally selected the topics and speakers for this Webinar Series. They have also designed it to be specifically catered to anyone in the industry looking to advance their knowledge, skills, and abilities.

This month we are launching our “Your questions and our answers series”, a free webinar series that will occur on the last Friday of the month between 12 PM to 1 PM. If you have questions do not hesitate to send them to us and we will try to answer them during the live sessions.

The first topic we have selected is competency and compliance requirements for trainers and assessors.

In this series, you will learn about:

  • What are trainers and assessors?
  • The role of trainer and assessor in the workplace
  • How to become a qualified trainer or assessor?
  • What do the legislation, regulation and guidelines mention related to trainers and assessors?
  • What are the competencies that must be met for trainers and assessors?
  • What is the difference between training and assessment?

These webinars will provide you with the opportunity to ask questions and get answers from experts in the field.

If you are interested to attend this free webinar, and also receive a certificate of attendance and participation, please click here.

Training and assessment strategies – why you should have a clear roadmap!

When it comes to training, there are many factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the training. However, one of the most important factors is how effective and efficient your training and assessment strategy is.

There are a number of key considerations in training and assessment strategies including but not limited to:

– Learner experience
– Learner engagement
– Quality learning and assessment outcomes

The goal of this roadmap is to provide a guide for quality training. It provides practical strategies for effective learning, assessment, and evaluation.

To create the ultimate learning course, you need to understand how your learners learn best. You need to tap into their interests, goals, styles of learning, and more to give them the best chance of success. This requires careful planning at the beginning of your course development process. This roadmap will help you identify what types of activities will engage your learners and provide them with a rewarding experience that will keep them coming back for more!

A Training and Assessment Strategy (TAS) is the approach of, and method adopted by, an RTO with respect to training and assessment designed to enable learners to meet the requirements of the training package or accredited course (Glossary, Standards for RTOs 2015).

The Training and Assessment Strategy (TAS) is a high-level view of a program that guides the learning requirements and the teaching, training and assessment arrangements of a VET qualification. It is a “how-to” guide that defines and explains the process of developing, delivering and managing a training program.

The Training and Assessment Strategy (TAS) is also called a Learning and Assessment Strategy (LAS), Qualification Delivery and Assessment Strategy (QDAS) or simply; a helicopter document. We strongly suggest you name your document according to the terminology and words mentioned within the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015.

The Training and Assessment Strategy (TAS) is used to convey information such as;

  • The qualification (if applicable) or unit of competency training product codes and titles
  • Requirements to enrol in the course (set by the RTO)
  • The core and elective units of competency in the course and a rationale
  • Details of the training product and alignment with the qualification packaging rules
  • Prerequisites (pre-existing knowledge and skills) to enrol in the training product (as per the training package)
  • Details of the training organisation and contact person
  • Any clustering (grouping) of units
  • The learner cohort/ training group (description of employment status, academic background, domestic or international, related industry experience)
  • The mode and method of training delivery
  • The mode and method of assessment
  • Entry and exit points
  • Pathways to, from and employment
  • Timeframes for delivery and assessment
  • The volume of learning and amount of training
  • Information regarding work-placement requirements, if applicable
  • Information on how training and assessment is going to take place
  • Details of staff qualified to deliver and assess the training
  • Equipment, facilities and resources required
  • Explanation and outline of industry consultation
  • Explanation and outline of how industry feedback has contributed to changes in training and assessment, facilities and resources, training and assessment skills of trainers and assessors
  • How the program has been validated
  • The sequence of delivery of units according to a priority order
  • Review and approval processes for training and assessment strategies to both staff and regulators (in the case of nationally recognised training).

This information is initially constructed to form an overarching strategy that will allow the training organisation to validate that it possesses the organisational capacity to deliver the qualification; giving thought to any specific venue, access to equipment as well as qualified staff; both from a vocational and training and assessment perspective.

The Training and Assessment Strategy, therefore, outlines the macro-level requirements of the learning and assessment process.

The Training and Assessment Strategy tool or template can be developed using a Word document (.docx). It is an active document and should be modified and updated to match what, where, when and how the training organisation is delivering a training product.

How auditors use the training and assessment strategy

The auditors make sure the strategy provides the framework to deliver a quality training product. Their main focus stays on:

  • Where the training will be delivered
  • How the training will be delivered
  • What the method of the course delivery is
  • What resources and/or support services are provided to the student
  • Who is delivering the training and any skill-gaps
  • How clear are entry and exit requirements
  • How clear the instructions and information for trainers and assessors are when using the strategy

The regulatory body can ask you to provide a compliant training and assessment strategy at any time before, during or after an audit or any regulatory activity such as at the time of addition to scope application etc.

You must develop a training and assessment strategy before you start delivering training. The strategy should be validated to ensure it is “fit-for-purpose”. You need to develop training and assessment strategies when you are planning to deliver a course/training product.

You must have a fit for purpose training assessment strategy for:

  • each course and/or training product
  • each delivery mode (classroom-based, online, workplace delivery etc)
  • each learner cohort
  • each location
  • or any other variation in teaching, learning, assessment and support arrangements

Where any variations occur in training and assessment you must provide a modified TAS. A common situation occurs where a training and assessment strategy has been developed for one learner cohort, however, the training organisation is asked to deliver to a very different cohort. For example, a TAS was initially developed to deliver training to mature students with substantial industry experience with a shorter delivery time frame and assessment methods that utilise the candidates’ prior experience- or application to the workplace. If the RTO’s new learner cohort has little to no experience, the TAS will not be fit for purpose.

There is also no “single size” template for a TAS. All variations must be correctly recorded through a customised or new training and assessment strategy. The training organisation must consider:

  • How the revised or updated training and assessment strategy provides a clear framework for delivering a quality training product or course
  • Support needs and requirements to deliver a training product
  • How the course delivery suits the learner cohort or alternatively, referring the opportunity to another provider if the cohort does not meet their business model.

In our next editions, we will discuss:

  • What should be included in a training and assessment strategy (TAS) template
  • How to complete a training and assessment strategy (TAS) template
  • Review and manage training and assessment strategy (TAS) tool

Can a training and assessment strategy be used for different learner cohorts?

A simple answer to this question is “no”. The regulatory requirements require the training provider to ensure they have employed suitable and effective training and assessment practices after evaluating and assessing the needs of each of their learner. You can certainly categorise the learners, according to their preferences, needs and requirements into a separate learner cohort but then you must design a learning and assessment strategy for each of your learner cohort.

You can offer learners a learning experience that is unique to the cohort they belong to by categorising them into smaller groups based on the category they fall into. You can separate and organise discussion topics by cohorts so that participants only communicate with people from their own group. You can design course material in such a way that different cohorts of learners receive different assessments or training materials designed and prepared to meet their individual learning and training needs and requirements.

Regulatory guidelines related to this matter are:

Standards for RTOs 2015:

Clause 1.1

The RTO’s training and assessment strategies and practices, including the amount of training they provide, are consistent with the requirements of training packages and VET accredited courses and enable each learner to meet the requirements for each unit of competency or module in which they are enrolled.

Clause 1.2

For the purposes of clause 1.1, the RTO determines the amount of training they provide to each learner with regard to:

  • the existing skills, knowledge and the experience of the learner
  • the mode of delivery
  • where a full qualification is not being delivered, the number of units and/or modules being delivered as a proportion of the full qualification.

Clause 1.3

The RTO has, for all of its scope of registration, and consistent with its training and assessment strategies, sufficient:

  • trainers and assessors to deliver the training and assessment
  • educational and support services to meet the needs of the learner cohort/s undertaking the training and assessment
  • learning resources to enable learners to meet the requirements for each unit of competency, and which are accessible to the learner regardless of location or mode of delivery
  • facilities, whether physical or virtual, and equipment to accommodate and support the number of learners undertaking the training and assessment.

Clause 1.4

The RTO meets all requirements specified in the relevant training package or VET accredited course.

Clause 2.2

The RTO:

  • systematically monitors the RTO’s training and assessment strategies and practices to ensure ongoing compliance with Standard 1
  • systematically evaluates and uses the outcomes of the evaluations to continually improve the RTO’s training and assessment strategies and practices. Evaluation information includes but is not limited to quality/performance indicator data collected under clause 7.5, validation outcomes, client trainer and assessor feedback and complaints and appeals.

Let us understand this concept using some practical real-life examples.

Example 1:

The training organisation has the opportunity to offer training through different training delivery modes such as online, workplace, distance, classroom or blended (combination of two or more delivery modes). However, the training organisation will not be able to use the same strategies, resources, equipment, and materials for all the different delivery modes. The same condition applies to the training and assessment strategies as well. Online learners might need access to learning management system, discussion forums, interactive training sessions, online meetings and so on when traditional classroom learners may need face to face, live interactions with trainers and assessors, set time and set location for training and learning activities, physical distancing, different sets of equipment and training materials. Therefore, you will not be able to design a single strategy that can meet the requirements of these completely different kinds of learner cohorts.

Example 2:

Another example is for learners who may or may not require prerequisite learning and assessment criteria before enrolling into a course. There are several courses where students are required to have adequate and sufficient knowledge, skills and understanding to enrol into the course. Without meeting these fundamental enrolment and admission requirements, which can be set by the training product, a regulatory body, at the state or federal level or by the training organisation, the learners should not be able to enrol, study and complete a course. You will therefore require two separate sets of training programs, one for the learner cohort who can commence training after demonstrating they meet the admission and enrolment criteria and another one for learners who must complete the prerequisites before enrolling into a course. This example also includes learners who need to improve their English proficiency skills before they can enrol to complete a training program, completing a training course before enrolling into a pathway program, completing a hands-on employment training program or work—experience for a certain time period and so on.

Note: Some of these requirements can be co-requisite (must be studied at the same time of completing other components of the training and assessment) and others are prerequisites (must be successfully completed before enrolling into the training program).

Example 3:

We discussed this example in part 1 as well but thought to include it again to ensure the readers understand why we need to develop separate training and assessment strategies to meet the needs of the different learner cohorts.

For example, a TAS was initially developed to deliver training to mature students with substantial industry experience with a shorter delivery time frame and assessment methods that utilise the candidates’ prior experience- or application to the workplace. If the RTO’s new learner cohort has little to no experience, the TAS will not be fit for purpose.

There is also no “single size” template for a TAS. All variations must be correctly recorded through a customised or new training and assessment strategy.

What are the different learner cohorts?

  • The learner cohorts can also be based on a number of other factors such as:
  • The location where training and assessment will be delivered is it online, classroom, workplace, blended etc.
  • The facilities, equipment, materials, support services and resources required to deliver the training.
  • Skill gaps identified in the learner cohorts or expected pre-requisite knowledge, skills and work experience required to enrol and complete the course
  • The course duration and timings and arrangements to cater for these needs.
  • Course entry and exit requirements
  • English language proficiency requirements
  • Support needs and requirements of each learner
  • Disability, demographics, degree, dialect, difference
  • Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, first in the family to attend university, non-English speaking background.
  • Multicultural, mindset, motivation, morals
  • Employment status of the learners
  • Reason for enrolling into the course
  • Relevant industry and work experience in the specific stream
  • Course delivery structure and sequence
  • Recognition of prior learning and recognition of current competencies
  • Duration of the training course
  • Other possible variations for learners with different learning and assessment needs and requirements

Note: This is not an exhaustive list and is written for reference purposes only.

In our next editions, we will discuss:

  • What should be included in a training and assessment strategy (TAS) template
  • How to complete a training and assessment strategy (TAS) template
  • Review and manage training and assessment strategy (TAS) tool

Interview – Andrew Shea – CEO, Builders Academy Australia

Andrew is an educational and business professional and known intrapreneur who specialises in leading high performing teams, optimising business processes and quality assurance and compliance frameworks. He is a proven transformational leader and has successfully fulfilled managerial and leadership positions across a range of industries.

Areas of specialisation include:

♦ C-Suite executive across ASX and non-ASX businesses
♦ Experienced Chair
♦ Conference speaker
♦ Governance, audit and risk specialist
♦ Not for Profit Board member
♦ Business improvement and compliance advisor
♦ Tertiary Education digital marketing advisor

Over the last 15 years, Andrew has managed and/or consulted with a number some of Australia’s best known Registered Training Organisation’s. As a teacher by trade, he for has personally delivered training and coaching sessions to over 2000 individuals over this time.

In addition to his organisation development and leadership capabilities, Andrew is well recognised in relation to his instructional design and course development capabilities having developed high quality training and assessment materials in the fields of Hospitality, Security, OH&S, Construction, Training and Assessment, Business Management and Leadership.

Andrew has a thorough knowledge of both challenges experienced by training organisations and also industry best practice having led a number of award winning training providers.

1. When it comes to your work as the Chief Executive Officer of two Registered Training Organisation’s that have been recognised with multiple awards, what lessons are there for other providers in what you have learnt in your role?

I am really proud of the recognition that our team at Builders Academy Australia and CWBTS has received across a number of years including being recognised multiple times as the Victorian Training Provider of the Year, NSW finalist for Training Provider of the Year, and last year as the Australian Small Training Provider of the Year at the Australian Training Awards.
Despite our growth and recognition for innovation, quality and great outcomes, we have not necessarily focussed on building our business, but instead on building the capacity of our people, and in-turn, our fantastic team has then helped to grow our business and help more students across Australia through embedding innovative practice whilst maintaining quality outcomes.
We are pleased that we have been able to sustain quality outcomes for our students and employer partners for a number of years, despite the challenges from Covid-19 restrictions and these outcomes have been supported by maintaining a deep understanding of who our students are, the motivations they have towards completing their studies, and embedding industry engagement, and current and future industry skills into all content that we deliver. Through utilisation virtual reality and 3-d walkthroughs of actual building sites as part of our virtual classroom delivery model, we were able to continue to support students despite Covid-19 related limitations for periods.

My team has been proud to showcase that a focus on people, while being a for profit organisation, are not mutually exclusive measures of success in the training system. In 2020/2021, our agile business model, responsive staff and well-developed virtual learning platform has meant that not a single student has missed a training session due to COVID-19. Even the most kinaesthetic of learners has benefitted because of our real commitment to replicating on-site experience, student success and quality outcomes.

I think that maintaining a focus on what industry needs, and reverse engineering our learning and assessment strategies around how we can best support students to achieve those outcomes has had us well placed. We also deeply respect the impact we can have outside of the formal learning environment and dedicate much focus on initiatives such as diversity across the building and construction sector, supporting disengaged youth towards employment opportunities, men’s mental health awareness initiatives and reducing homeliness across our community.

We are as proud of our involvement in these areas as all other achievements and our genuineness in this focus, I believe, is respected and appreciated by both our fantastic staff, students and business partners.

2. You personally have also been recognised for your leadership in your organisation and across the sector with multiple awards such as the Professionals Services and Educational Executive of the Year at the CEO Awards. What lesson have you learnt about the importance of strong leadership in our sector?

In the 6 years I have been in my current role, and my previous senior executive roles, I have focussed on embedding a values-based culture that invests in student success – with enthusiastic staff, robust systems and innovative platforms.

I believe in a human-centric leadership approach and have attempted to build a culture of trust within my team, with a clear vision, and regular and open communication that drives greater empathy among employees and overall improves performance across the divisions of the business. This was particularly important during the uncertain periods that Covid-19 resulted in.

This focus flows through to the relationships we have with our students, as we ensure that we engage personally with people as individuals, utilise stories and marketing as tools for transformation, and engage actively in the macro-level conversations of our industry and the broader VET sector. This collectively shapes our delivery and development, which leads to outstanding outcomes and career pathways for a diverse range of students and staff.

I am a passionate ambassador for the VET sector and am proud to be part of a sector with such dedicated professionals who focus on helping students achieve their learning and career ambitions.

Over the previous 17 years, I have worked across public (TAFE), enterprise and independent training organisations, holding Senior Management and Executive level positions, delivering across diverse cohorts including to domestic students, onshore to international students and offshore to international students. This is a sector that I believe is integral to Australia being able to meet its current and future skilled labour requirements and maintain efficient and productive workplaces.

It is a sector that I look forward to continuing to take part in and positively impact for many years to come.

3. Could you briefly elaborate on your role and responsibilities at ITECA as well as how ITECA is assisting the RTO industry?

I have been actively involved with the Independent Tertiary Education Council Australia (ITECA) (previously the Australian Council for Private Education and Training (ACPET)) over the last 12 years, and I am pleased to have been able to play a role supporting the Peak body for independent tertiary education providers.

With ITECA, I am proud to be currently a Non-Executive Director and Board member, as well as Chair of the National VET Steering Group, Chair of the Governance Committee and Chair of the Victorian State Community. ITECA is supported by a strong executive team, highly respected Board members, and passionate VET professionals who represent strongly on State and National Committees.

With Independent tertiary education providers delivering the majority of training across Australia, ITECA plays such an important role as a strong voice representing the interests of its members, as well as the broader independent sector. This representation and the community of practice that ITECA has created has become even more important over the last 18 months where a range of providers have faced significant challenges aligned with Covid-19 restrictions.

The role of Peak Bodies such as ITECA is integral through the functions they complete including research, policy development, advice to government and sector advocacy and representation. ITECA plays an important role in championing the great outcomes being achieved by independent provides across Australia, and through research papers such as their ‘State of the Sector Report’, they help to ensure that government policy is, as much as possible, aligned with real outcomes and data rather than more ideological reasoning.

Whether it being with ITECA, other Peak Bodies or industry associations, I would recommend to all that they look to join and become active in helping to drive positive changes for our sector.

4. You are one of the very few recognised quality industry experts and leaders that we have in Australia, so how has your experience been working with the regulatory body ASQA to assist them in the transition process that they are currently undergoing?

I think that we have a range of quality representatives and consultants in Australia who add much value across the sector.

My pathway towards becoming a CEO is one that is potentially unconventional for our sector having followed a pathway from training delivery, into Training Management, into managing Resource Development and Curriculum Design, into Quality Assurance and Compliance Management and then as a VET Quality Consultant across public and independent providers.

I do remember speaking at a conference many years ago and being introduced as one of Australia’s first Compliance CEO’s which to me seemed a strange thing to be noted due to how highly regulated our sector is and the significant importance of a CEO being intrinsically involved in ensuring quality and compliance across their organisations.

I have always seen a strong focus on quality and compliance in our sector as a business enabler and to this stage of my career I believe the investment into understanding the VET landscape including all aspects of regulation and compliance has been highly beneficial in my role as CEO as well as someone who often speaks at industry events and conferences, with a focus on providing helpful guidance to others in our sector.

I believe that a short number of years ago, the disconnect between the National Regulator and the regulated community was something unhealthy for our sector and the uncertainty for RTO’s on what they could expect at audit and how to ensure their own operations where compliant with respect to each aspect of the Standards was to the detriment of our sectors reputation.

With significant changes to the Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA) to adapt its culture and relationship with the sector, including a move away from their previous audit model to a performance assessment framework, I think that genuine change has been occurring and across a number of areas the rubber has been genuinely hitting the road.

I was pleased to be appointed to the ASQA Stakeholder Liaison Group (SLG) and I have been impressed about ASQA’s openness to take on feedback from members of the SLG, using this feedback to update key documents including their Corporate Plan and Regulatory Model to reference areas such as the importance of education and consistency in audit activity and outcomes.

One of the significant changes that ASQA has implemented has been its launched educative function which I believe has added great value to RTO’s in understanding their obligations, as well as hearing from industry representatives on how they implement best practice in their own organisations.

I have been glad to be able to work with others to positively support ASQA’s launching of this educative function, and their initial content production, having taken part myself in 6 education sessions so far covering topics such as regulatory practice, audit expectations, online education quality and compliance expectations and trainer capability.

I look forward to further ASQA webinar sessions over the coming months where I will be presenting on teacher/trainer capability and the upcoming review of the TAE Training Package.
All involvement in these groups, working committees and conferences I speak at, I do unpaid, and volunteer my time in order to positively support the VET sector.

5. You are Chair of the Education Industry Reference Committee and the Foundation Skills Industry Reference Committee through PWC – Skills for Australia, what changes to Training Packages can we expect to see over the coming period.

I was humbled to be nominated by my peers as Chair of these IRC’s that have such high quality and respected VET sector representatives on them. I don’t take lightly the importance of getting Training Packages right for training providers, students and the industries which employ graduates, and this will be particularly the case for an upcoming new version of the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment.

The Industry Reference Committee has on three previous occasions requested to the Australian Industry and Skills Committee (AISC), that a review of the TAE Training Package take place to ensure that any disconnects with industry needs can be addressed. It has been the view of the IRC for an extended period that the Training Package does not fully address modern workforce needs including the Certificate IV’s insufficient flexibility regarding packaging rules.

Pleasingly, the AISC has now approved the review, and redevelopment can take place and the IRC is looking forward to receiving robust feedback from providers to ensure that improvements can be made.

The review itself will take part in two stages, with an initial e-learning and e-assessment development project to be completed by December in 2021, and a full review of all qualifications within the TAE Training Package to be completed by late November 2022.

One important point is that it will be the strong recommendation of the IRC, that any new version of the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment, be recognised as the successor to the current (under clause 1.14 / 1.15 in the Standards for RTO’s) so that the current workforce who hold the TAE40116 will not be required to upgrade their qualifications.

I have already delivered a number of webinars on these topics and for those who wish to take part in helping with the review and redevelopment I would encourage to go to the PWC – Skills for Australia website and sign up for their newsletter which will provide information on upcoming sessions and working groups. Readers are also welcome to follow me on Linkedin where I will be sharing updates on the project.

6. What are your opinions on all of the changes that will occur in the VET sector in the near future, including the new regulatory framework, the new TAE certificate, the new AQF framework, the cessation of ISCs and SSOs, the redesign of units of competency, and everything else that will occur?

In 2020, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) released a research paper identifying that the VET workforce includes some 246,000 representatives with another 177,000 who work in volunteer roles. I think the significance of our sector, and its importance in helping Australia meet its current and future labour needs can’t be understated.

There are a number of VET Quality Reforms underway at present, with a focus on ensuring that our sector is fit for purpose and is regulated and supported in a way that will help achieve the outcomes required.

In addition to a current review of the Standards for Registered Training Organisations that is underway, earlier this year, Skills Ministers agreed to establish new industry-based clusters (Industry Clusters) with broad roles and responsibilities for skills and workforce development by December 2022. Industry Clusters will replace Industry Reference Committees (IRCs), Skills Service Organisations (SSOs) and Skills Organisation Pilots (SOs).

The establishment of Industry Clusters is intended to enhance the role of industry in the national training system with a broader role and greater accountability to industry.

I am part of a number of consultations on this review activity through the different hats that I wear, and in each I do raise my concerns regarding the potential to not intrinsically involve Registered Training Organization’s as part of the process of Training Package design and implementation. I think to not do so, is not only disrespectful to a sector that employs or engages a workforce of over 400,000, but would also be counter-intuitive to achieving positive outcomes that draw on the knowledge from strong relationships that RTO’s have with the industries they help serve with graduates.

With the approved review of the TAE Training Package now underway, I was pleased that aligning with this a TAE Strategic Advisory Committee has been established with myself being an invited member. This Committee will act as a sounding board for the Education IRC throughout the TAE Training Package re-development project, with the key goal of ensuring appropriate linkages between the review and broader VET workforce policy and regulatory directions and settings.

This will allow for input on topics such as clauses 1.17 to 1.20 within the Standards for RTO’s to ensure that the Standards continue to allow for the provision of supervision of trainers where needed, even where the standards and training package may be updated, with an additional skill set that may be agreed to be recognised under this clause being developed.

7. I clearly remember that we first spoke in 2010 when you were the CEO of a different training organisation and I was a Director of Studies somewhere else; what do you believe has changed in the VET sector in the last 10-11 years and what do you believe we will see over the coming years?

I have enjoyed seeing your journey as a highly respected VET sector representative, and it does feel like a long time since then.

It is important to remember the significant role our sector plays in supporting Australian workforces with our VET sector made up of over 3500 registered training organisations (RTOs) delivering nationally recognised VET, and a number more delivering micro-credentials and non-accredited training. In 2020, 3.9 million students were enrolled in nationally recognised vocational education and training (VET) despite challenges faced over the period including a significant reduction in international students.

Increased and inconsistent regulatory activity; reduced and/or inconsistent State and Federal investment into the sector; changes to visa and related conditions for international students; and delivery impacts caused by Covid-19 restrictions have all challenged providers in their continued support of student learning outcomes and this has seen a significant reduction in training provider numbers over the last decade.

I think that our sector has also taken a number of years to recover from the reputational damage caused by a small number of unscrupulous providers related to the use of VET-FEE Help who took advantaged or a poorly structured and regulated scheme.

Despite this, the very large majority of training providers of all types, continue their focus on student centric, high quality delivery and student and employer satisfaction rates continue to show that largely positive outcomes continue to be achieved throughout the sector.

I think what we will see over the coming years is a much greater focus on collaboration, and organisations either working as part of a consortium or as a minimum as part of a strong community of practice. This will support the sharing of ideas, and quality practices across organisations, and make benchmarking easier for the betterment of all. Consultants also play an important role in conducting reviews across an RTO’s operations and giving insight into best practice and innovation they have seen in other areas of the sector.

I think that the importance of RTO’s being part of their Peak Bodies, or other quality and practitioner networks will continue to increase, and, in a post Covid-19 environment, the importance of the VET sector will be more so than ever. This will include the return of international students with Australia able to continue to build on its strong reputation in supporting students who wish to study both onshore and offshore.

Despite the challenges that Covid-19 created in limiting face to face delivery for periods, the online learning workforce capability this fast-tracked will be of great benefit to providers and the sector moving forward. From a recent paper released by ASQA, survey data from over 3000 participants at a webinar series that I was part of regarding online learning, showed that over 90 per cent had started or increased delivery via an online mode over the last 18 months. Although online learning is not suited to all student cohorts, or all qualifications, and rarely can it meet the needs of delivering full qualifications, this capability will better aid the sector in meeting student needs and expectations moving forward.

For those who wish to connect with or follow Andrew Shea, you can do so via his Linkedin, here –